The Agora
Bible Commentary

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Author: Paul.

Time: AD 57.

Summary: Paul first demonstrates that Jews and Gentiles alike are sinners in the eyes of God and therefore worthy of death. That is the "bad news" that gives power to the "good news" (Rom 1:16,17), in which Paul explains that Jesus Christ is able to provide a covering for our sins. Further, he shows that Israel too, though presently in a state of unbelief, has a place in God's plan of redemption. The letter concludes with an appeal to the readers to work out their Christian faith in practical ways.

Key verses: "For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus" (Rom 3:23–24).

"An epistle which, for sublimity and truth of sentiment, for brevity and strength of expression, for regularity in its structure, and, above all, for the unspeakable importance of the discoveries it contains, stands unrivalled by any mere human composition, and as far exceeds the most celebrated productions of the learned Greeks and Romans, as the shining of the sun exceeds the twinkling of the stars."


1. Introduction: Rom 1:1–17

2. The unrighteousness of all mankind: Rom 1:16-–3:20

a) Gentiles: Rom 1:18–32
b) Jews: Rom 2:1–3:8
c) Summary: all people: Rom 3:9–20

3. Righteousness imputed: justification: Rom 3:21–-5:21

  1. Through Christ: Rom 3:21–26
  2. Received by faith: Rom 3:27–-4:25
  3. The fruits of righteousness: Rom 5:1–11
  4. Summary: man's righteousness contrasted with God's gift: Rom 5:12–21
4. Righteousness imparted: sanctification: Rom 6–8

a) Freedom from sin's tyranny: Rom 6
b) Freedom from the law's condemnation: Rom 7
c) Life in the power of the Holy Spirit: Rom 8

5. The problem of the rejection of Israel: Rom 9–11

a) The justice and cause of the rejection: Rom 9:1–10:21
b) The restoration of Israel: Rom 11

6. The gospel in practice: Rom 12:1--15:13

a) In the body -- the church: Rom 12
b) In the world: Rom 13
c) Among weak and strong Christians: Rom 14:1--15:13

7. Conclusion and greetings: Rom 15:14--16:27

See Lesson, Rom, outline by chapter


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