The Agora
Bible Commentary

1 2 3

Joel 2

Joe 2:1

BLOW THE TRUMPET IN ZION: A call to military alertness (Num 10:9). The duty of the watchman (Eze 33:1-7).

TRUMPET: The "shofar", or ram's horn. Cp v 15; Jer 4:19; Amo 2:2; Josh 6:20; Jdg 7:18; Zeph 1:16.

ON MY HOLY HILL: An alert to a danger esp to the city of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount.

THE DAY OF THE LORD IS COMING: A unique concentration of calamity and judgment.

IT IS CLOSE AT HAND: Cp, generally, Jam 5:8. Such a warning would impart an element of absurdity to the message if its relevance was only to the Last Day, more than 2500 years after Joel's own time. A near reference is demanded first of all; and the best candidate is the Assyrian invasion of Sennacherib/Hezekiah is plain.

Joe 2:2

DARKNESS... GLOOM... CLOUDS... BLACKNESS: Cp with Egypt's Passover plague of darkness (just before deliverance; Exo 10:22,23) and the day of Christ's crucifixion (Mat 27:45).

LIKE DAWN SPREADING ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS: But instead of light creeping across the mountains, at the dawn of a new day, it is darkness creeping along to herald the arrival of the great conquering army! At the very time when the brightness of the sun should be bursting forth over the summit of the Mount of Olives, a deep impenetrable darkness rolls in instead. Such passages as Mal 4 and Zec 14:6,7 echo this.

A LARGE AND MIGHTY ARMY COMES: It is not a locust invasion after all; it is a human army!

Joe 2:3

BEFORE THEM THE LAND IS LIKE THE GARDEN OF EDEN, BEHIND THEM, A DESERT WASTE: Fire and flame fill the landscape again (Joel 1:19,20). A fertility comparable to Eden, the result of the prosperous years of king Uzziah (2Ch 26:10), is transformed to a sickening desolation, as happened in the time of Abraham when that Garden of Eden was also the moral cesspool of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 13:10). "As it was in the days of Lot... so shall it be" (Luk 17:28,29).

Joe 2:4

Vv 4-9: // to Assyrian army passages in Isa 33:3 and Nah 3:15,17.

HORSES: The instruments of war: Job 39:19-25; Hab 3:15; Zech 10:3; Rev 19:11.

Joe 2:6

Helpless horror written on every face! (cp Nah 2:10). "How well these words describe a nation reduced to utter hopelessness, as of course it is God's intention that they shall be, so that with every vestige of their incomparable self-reliance gone they will be driven to respond to the prophet's appeal for repentance: 'Therefore...' (v 12)" (WJoel).

Joe 2:7

Vv 7-9: An irresistible enemy -- they run, they climb, they fly as a dense dark cloud, and as the most disciplined army that ever was they march and march without ever a break in the ranks; thus they refuse to be hindered.

Joe 2:8

THEY PLUNGE THROUGH DEFENSES WITHOUT BREAKING RANKS: The KJV ("When they fall upon the sword, they shall not be wounded") is not a good translation, and has even been misused to "prove" that this describes an immortal, indestructible army -- which is certainly not the case. The whole context militates against this.

Joe 2:10

BEFORE THEM THE EARTH SHAKES, THE SKY TREMBLES, THE SUN AND MOON ARE DARKENED, AND THE STARS NO LONGER SHINE: "In savage despite crops were fired, and a pall of smoke ascended up to heaven (Joel 1:19,20). Gloom both in spirit and atmospheric fact, hung over the whole Land. But there was no fire of sacrifice ascending up to God, nor any of the tokens of thanksgiving with which a good harvest would normally fill the temple court. It was the total eclipse of Israel. Their sun and moon and stars were darkened. All glory gone!" (WJoel).

EARTHQUAKE: "There is room also for the earthquake mentioned here to be both literal and figurative (cp Mat 27:51). In other places earthquake is a token of (a) the wrath of God (eg Psa 18:7); (b) the end of a worthless dispensation (eg, Heb 12:27). Both ideas are appropriate to the situation described here. The modern state of Israel, reared entirely on human effort and cleverness and with scarcely a vestige of faith in Jehovah (Deu 32:20), must be destroyed. For Israel was chosen to glorify God by their faith in Him and to be a missionary nation to all the Gentiles (Exo 19:6); and modern Israel is the quintessence of the very opposite of these. So Jehovah does well to be angry.

"Yet, has God cast away His people whom He foreknew? God forbid. So Joel goes on to show how a new dispensation will be inaugurated with repentance in Israel..." (WJoel).

Joe 2:11

THE LORD THUNDERS AT THE HEAD OF HIS ARMY: 3. Cp Isa 8:7,8; 10:5-7; and the same idiom in Mat 22:7; Rev 9:11. Although the army in question is the Assyrian -- yet the LORD God is still in charge, directing that army to fulfill His purpose.

HIS FORCES ARE BEYOND NUMBER: "The Lord... is a man of war, Jehovah is His name. All the forces of heaven are at His beck, legions wait at His door, cherubim and seraphim, watchers and holy ones, principalities and powers, are all attentive to His will. If our eyes were not blinded by the ophthalmia of the flesh, we should see horses of fire and chariots of fire round about the Lord's beloved. The powers of nature are all subject to the absolute control of the Creator: stormy wind and tempest, lightning and rain, and snow, and hail, and the soft dews and cheering sunshine, come and go at His decree... Earth, sea, and air, and the places under the earth, are the barracks for Jehovah's great armies; space is His camping ground, light is His banner, and flame is His sword. When He goeth forth to war, famine ravages the land, pestilence smites the nations, hurricane sweeps the sea, tornado shakes the mountains, and earthquake makes the solid world to tremble. As for animate creatures, they all own His dominion, and from the great fish which swallowed the prophet, down to 'all manner of flies,' which plagued the field of Zoan, all are His servants, and like the... the caterpillar [and locust] are squadrons of His great army, for His camp is very great... See to it that thou be at peace with this mighty King, yea, more, be sure to enlist under His banner, for to war against Him is madness, and to serve Him is glory... If I be already, as I hope I am, a soldier of the cross, let me be of good courage; for the enemy is powerless compared with my Lord, whose camp is very great" (CHS).

THE DAY OF THE LORD IS GREAT; IT IS DREADFUL. WHO CAN ENDURE IT?: This grim picture makes a great impression on later prophets, and is quoted in Mal 3:2; 4:5; and Rev 6:17.

Joe 2:12

Vv 12,13: A solemn call to repentance, to turn aside -- if possible -- the devastating Assyrian invasion. Such repentance came, but almost too late -- for only Jerusalem (and those who sought shelter there) were spared.

"Here... is the only solution to Israel's woes and troubles: Repentance! It is doubtful whether any exhortation to a new life is to be found in the Bible to compare with this sustained and detailed pleading. But for long centuries God's people have been impervious to these appeals of heaven. Yet repentance -- note the piling up of phrases -- is the only thing that can save Israel from the unparalleled disaster which today appears threateningly on the horizon.

"It is an aspect of the teaching of God's Word concerning Israel, which the New Israel just as stubbornly refuses to recognize, that except there be repentance first, even the omnipotence of an Almighty God cannot save the people of His choice. It is not possible to print out in full the entire list of Scriptures about this. Instead, the bald references are given. If any reader doubts the Bible's intensity of emphasis is really as strong as all that, let him work his way patiently through the subjoined catalogue. He will then ask himself, and his fellows, in amazement why such a vital theme has gone so much ignored for so long a time. Is it because earlier teachers left it alone, and if they didn't see it, it can't have been there? Or is it because, even for those who are spiritually streets ahead of natural Israel, repentance is an unpopular topic?

"Zech 6:15; 12:10-14; 13;9; Isa 17:6-8; 19:20; 59:20; Eze 20:42-44; 36:24-28; 37:11,23; Psa 81:13,14; Rom 11:15,26; Jer 3:14-18; 4:1,2; 29:12-14; Deu 4:27-31; 30:1-3; Mat 23:39; Amos 5:15; Lev 26:40ff; 1Ki 8:47-49; Gen 18:19; Zeph 2:1-3; Acts 3:19,20.

"In the face of this sustained remonstration, is it possible to believe that the Second Coming of the Lord will/can take place except the people of God demand it by their holy way of life and godliness? (2Pe 3:11,12).

"The character of the repentance called for by the prophet Joel is spelled out very precisely, both as to disposition and the practical godliness summed up in the religious routine appropriate to his own day: 'meal offering and drink offering unto the Lord.' In practice, in this 20th century, what sort of repentance does Jehovah demand from His Israelis? One thing, for certain: an avowal of faith in Jesus as the Messiah. Let a Jew of today make that initial big step, and Messiah Jesus will see to the rest in due course. The guarantee for this, says Joel, is the character of the God of Israel which he quotes with gusto from Jehovah's own declaration to Moses: 'gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness' (Exo 34:6). This character of God had been exhibited in His longsuffering extended to brutal grasping Assyrians in the days of Jonah (Jon 3: 5-10; 4:11); and, thanks to the godly zeal of Hezekiah, was exhibited by the chosen people, undeserving, in Joel's own day (see, by all means, 2Ch 30:6-9)...

"Happily, neither Joel nor any other inspired writer goes so far as to assert that Messiah will come to the rescue of his nation only when all Israel is repentant. If Jehovah treasured seven thousand in the days of Elijah, is He not likely to be content with even fewer in the 3 1/2 year ministry of Elijah's great successor (Mal 4:6)?" (WJoel).

RETURN TO ME WITH ALL YOUR HEART: A full grief and repentance -- as one might expect from a young widow (cp Joel 1:8). Half-hearted repentance will not do (Exo 35:5; Lev 22:21), and in fact is a contradiction in terms.

FASTING: If genuine, their fasting would have nothing to do with self-pity (Zech 7:5,6), but rather would be directed toward pity and care for others (Isa 58:6,7).

FASTING... WEEPING... MOURNING: The three words used here also occur in Est 4:3 -- the mourning of Mordecai and the Jews at the king's decree calling for the extermination of all the Jews.

Joe 2:13

REND YOUR HEART AND NOT YOUR GARMENTS: "Garment-rending and other outward signs of religious emotion are easily manifested and are frequently hypocritical; but to feel true repentance is far more difficult, and consequently far less common. Men will attend to the most multiplied and minute ceremonial regulations -- for such things are pleasing to the flesh -- but true religion is too humbling, too heart-searching, too thorough for the tastes of the carnal men; they prefer something more ostentatious, flimsy, and worldly. Outward observances are temporarily comfortable; eye and ear are pleased; self-conceit is fed, and self-righteousness is puffed up: but they are ultimately delusive, for in the article of death, and at the day of judgment, the soul needs something more substantial than ceremonies and rituals to lean upon. Apart from vital godliness all religion is utterly vain; offered without a sincere heart, every form of worship is a solemn sham and an impudent mockery of the majesty of heaven" (CHS). See Job 1:20; 2:12; Est 4:1; Deu 10:16; Jer 4:4; 5:23,24; Psa 34:18; 51:17; Isa 66:2.

HE IS GRACIOUS AND COMPASSIONATE...: Cp Exo 34:5-7 -- the characteristics of the Covenant Name of Yahweh: "...the LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin..."

Joe 2:14

WHO KNOWS?...: Even the prophet could not know if repentance would be sufficient to turn aside the absolute wrath of the Almighty! It was, but only barely!

AND LEAVE BEHIND A BLESSING: See esp Num 6:23-27: " 'The LORD bless you and keep you; the LORD make his face shine upon you and be gracious to you; the LORD turn his face toward you and give you peace.' So they will put my name on the Israelites, and I will bless them." This is Day of Atonement language: after the assembling, and fasting, and repentance of the nation (vv 15-17), the LORD will answer, and the Glory of the LORD will shine forth and then withdraw, leaving behind Him a high priest emerging from the sanctuary to convey to his people an assurance of sins forgiven and of heavenly protection

Joe 2:15

Vv 15-17: "The summons to war (v 1) is now repeated as a call to observe with a new unparalleled sincerity the Day of Atonement that has hitherto left Israel's sins unforgiven. Phrase after phrase is significant...

BLOW THE TRUMPET: See Lev 23:24.



Joe 2:16

CONSECRATE THE ASSEMBLY; BRING TOGETHER THE ELDERS...: The whole nation gathered together, on the Day of Atonement, praying and fasting, and awaiting the blessing of God.

Joe 2:17

THE PRIESTS: Who had already been marked out as apostate (Joe 1:13).

Joe 2:18

THEN THE LORD WILL BE JEALOUS FOR HIS LAND AND TAKE PITY ON HIS PEOPLE: When Israel's strength is gone (Deu 32:36), in the "time of Jacob's trouble" (Jer 30:7), Yahweh will move for His people's redemption through Elijah (Mal 4:5,6), and those brought through the furnace of affliction will seek Him in truth (Zech 13:9).

Joe 2:19

I AM SENDING YOU GRAIN, NEW WINE AND OIL, ENOUGH TO SATISFY YOU FULLY: The language is that of a Year of Jubilee, such as was promised to Hezekiah (Isa 37:30,31) -- the windows of heaven opened in blessing and fruitfulness, transforming the dereliction of a ravaged land (cp Joel 1:9,10) into an incredible fertility.

NEVER AGAIN WILL I MAKE YOU AN OBJECT OF SCORN TO THE NATIONS: The Law had promised that this would happen (Deu 28:37), but now -- never again! Cp the assurances of Eze 36:12-15.

Joe 2:20

I WILL DRIVE THE NORTHERN ARMY FAR FROM YOU: No locust plague comes into Israel from the north -- so this suggests a human army: the Assyrians, who arrive from that direction.

(LD) Not the Gogian invader of Eze 38; 39 -- whose devastations to the Land do not appear to come close to what is described in Joel. Rather, an Arab coalition (see Lesson, Arab-Israeli war).

THE EASTERN SEA: The Dead Sea, as the NIV mg. See Eze 47:18; Zec 14:8.

THE WESTERN SEA: The Mediterranean, as the NIV mg. See Deu 11:24; 34:2; Zec 14:8.

Would a locust swarm travel with the wind in two opposite directions?

Joe 2:21

Vv 21-23: the order of rejoicing: land, animals, men -- the same order as in the Creation (Gen 1).

BE NOT AFRAID, O LAND; BE GLAD AND REJOICE: "What splendid imperatives!... They are made all the more heart-warming by the designed contrast with the preceding pictures of brutal invasion and the ruthless resolve to reduce a Land flowing with milk and honey to the barrenness of a wilderness. The campaign of destruction may succeed, but the rapidity of its recovery will be even more marvellous. Just as, in Hezekiah's time, the utter desolation of the Land by the Assyrians was followed in a year, two years, by unexampled fruitfulness and plenty, so also in Jacob's last unendurable 'time of trouble' when all seems lost, 'the Lord will do great things' " (WJoel).

SURELY THE LORD HAS DONE GREAT THINGS: The northern invader did "great things" AGAINST Israel (v 20)! But the LORD will do "greater things" FOR Israel!

Joe 2:22

BE NOT AFRAID, O WILD ANIMALS, FOR THE OPEN PASTURES ARE BECOMING GREEN: There are now adequate pastures and water supplies, reversing the disaster of Joel 1:18-20. Cp Isa 35; 65:17-25.

THE FIG TREE AND VINE YIELD THEIR RICHES: Both symbolic of the nation of Israel (Rom 11:12,13; Mic 4:7,8; Zec 8:13,23).

Joe 2:23

Vv 23-26: "Did Isaiah make a correct inference from the lovely pictures of blessedness painted by Joel, or was there a separate inspiration, which communicated to Hezekiah that the bad years would be atoned for with the double fertility and rich blessing of a Year of Jubilee? (Isa 37:30,31). In brief alluring pictures it was now made plain to God's stricken people that all that had been brutally snatched away from them would be restored in abundance, 'pressed down and running over' " (WJoel).

PEOPLE OF ZION: Or "children of Zion" (AV). Before the spiritual regeneration called for in vv 15-17, unrepentant Israel was called "the people" (vv 6,16). But after their response, they are called "His people" (vv 18,19), then "My people" (vv 26,27; Joel 3:2,3), and now "children of Zion" (cp Psa 87:5,6).

THE AUTUMN RAINS IN RIGHTEOUSNESS: Lit, "in the time of righteousness" -- which could easily be translated "...the TEACHER of righteousness" (NIV mg, AV mg)! "Normally the Hebrew word 'hammoreh' means 'the teacher', but here and in Psa 84:6 it seems to refer to the 'early rains'. Elsewhere the word for 'early rains' is 'yoreh'. The phrase used here ('hammoreh lisdakah') is similar to the expression 'teacher of righteousness' (Heb 'moreh hassedeq') found in the DSS in reference to a particular charismatic leader, although the Qumran community seems not to have invoked this particular text in support of that notion" (NETn).

BOTH AUTUMN AND SPRING RAINS: "In a good season the climate of Israel is blessed with two periods of abundant rain -- the early rains in October, the time of the sowing of barley and wheat, and the latter rains not long before Passover, filling out the ripening ears of corn. Israel, saved from its enemies, will have these blessings as never before" (WJoel). "For half the year Palestine is generally dry. The rainy season begins with the early rains usually in late October to early December, followed by the latter rains in March and April. Without these rains productive farming would not be possible, as Joel's original readers knew only too well" (NETn).

Joe 2:24

THE THRESHING FLOORS WILL BE FILLED WITH GRAIN: Ct the desolate and broken down garners and barns (Joel 1:17).

THE VATS WILL OVERFLOW WITH NEW WINE AND OIL: KJV "fats" sb "vats", of course, or even "winepresses" (Roth, and so translated in Isa 5:2; Num 18:27,30, etc).

NEW WINE AND OIL: Wine came from the grape harvest (July/Aug), and oil from olives (Aug/Sept). As the barley and wheat were being sown, the last of the fruit harvest was being gathered. Very effectively, therefore, the three products mentioned describe a continuous cycle of prosperity.

Joe 2:25

THE YEARS THE LOCUSTS HAVE EATEN: In other words, all the good that would have accrued to the people of Israel, which was lost during the times of devastation and famine, will be restored -- and more (ct Joel 1:4-7)!

MY GREAT ARMY THAT I SENT AMONG YOU: The Assyrian army (Isa 10:5,6,15). And even the latter invaders of Israel will be... "the armies of Yahweh", because -- though they know it not -- they are sent at His command!

Joe 2:26

NEVER AGAIN WILL MY PEOPLE BE SHAMED: The material blessings are evidence of a spiritual blessing, and a renewed fellowship -- which never will be broken again.

Joe 2:27

THEN YOU WILL KNOW THAT I AM IN ISRAEL, THAT I AM THE LORD YOUR GOD, AND THAT THERE IS NO OTHER: The union of Israel, once again, with its God will be the result of renewed knowledge of Him -- and not just theoretical knowledge, but living knowledge and experience, leading to true repentance and faith.

Joe 2:28

Vv 28-32: These vv were quoted by Peter on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2), when the Holy Spirit and the gift of tongues came upon the believers in the Temple, and many saw and heard and believed and were baptized. But, even though Peter applies these vv to that time, he must have known that they could only be the initial, and incomplete, fulfillment of everything that Joel's word implied -- for the end result of his prophecy would be the Kingdom of God reestablished! Still, for Peter, what was happening in Jerusalem in the first century was a great step in that direction. And who knew if the rest of the prophecy might not be fulfilled, and that very soon? (As it well might have been, had the nation of Israel repented in sufficient numbers and intensity.)

AND AFTERWARD, I WILL POUR OUT MY SPIRIT ON ALL PEOPLE: "This gracious outpouring of Holy Spirit inspiration will take place amongst the people of Israel, and not in far-flung countries of the Gentiles, as modern pentecostals want to read it. The entire prophesy hitherto, and esp v 32 (and Acts 2:16-18) make this conclusion inescapable.

"Nor can a dialectic emphasis on 'all flesh' impede this conclusion. Those who read this as meaning all nations have missed the point of the designed allusion, in contrast, to Exodus 30:22ff, which specifically required that the holy anointing oil was to be used only in the consecration of the high priest. Instead, in the happy days to come this high privilege will be extended to include the repentant people of Israel of all classes -- old and young, of both sexes too.

"It may be that this comprehensive language supplies the clue to the meaning of Malachi's prophecy that through the ministry of an Elijah prophet in the last days 'the hearts of the fathers (will be turned) to the children and the hearts of the children to the fathers' (Mal 4:6); for, earlier, Malachi has already twice quoted from Joel" (WJoel).

Joe 2:29

SERVANTS, BOTH MEN AND WOMEN: "The mention of 'servants and handmaids' should perhaps be taken to refer to the inclusion of Gentiles who have come to be willing servants of the God of Israel, and sharing the Hope of Israel: Isa 60:3ff; Zech 8:23; Mat 21:43; Gal 3:29; Rev 21:24. (This could hardly be true of pentecostals, for even the best-informed among them appear to be strangely inadequate in their grasp of Jehovah's Israelitish purpose).

"There is a remarkable similarity of idea in Isa 44:3, to Joel's words here. Did Isaiah lean on Joel, or Joel expand what he found in Isaiah? The prophets of the OT were great borrowers and collaborators. And similarly one is tempted to believe that Paul had his eye on Joel when he wrote Gal 3:28" (WJoel).

Joe 2:30

Vv 30,31: "There may be passages, which use language of this kind in a palpably figurative fashion (eg, Jer 31:35,36; Gen 37:9,10); but somehow this seems different. In spite of the sensational character of the language it is by no means easy to read it figuratively. And the literal sense is frightening. It will be, in truth, a 'great and terrible day of the Lord' (cp Mal 4:5)...

"Yet elsewhere -- dramatic language like this about sun, moon and stars clamours for a figurative interpretation with reference to Israel...

"So the student, faced with a challenging 'crux interpretum' of this kind, may find that he has to learn to come down on both sides of the fence at once, that is, if he is an acrobat.

"If Peter's quotation of these words in Acts 2 is to be taken seriously with reference to the first century, a symbolic anticipation of the horrors of the Roman war (AD 67-70; 3 1/2 years) fits the circumstances readily enough. But even at that time there were sensational appearances in and round Jerusalem providing fairly appropriate literal fulfillment also... Is it possible, then, that a prophecy such as this is intended to have both double and dual fulfilment? The present commentator dares not offer a dogmatic answer" (WJoel).

WONDERS IN THE HEAVENS AND ON THE EARTH: Cp figures of speech in Isa 37:36; 30:30-33; 31:8,9.

BLOOD AND FIRE AND BILLOWS OF SMOKE: All this language suggests sacrifices: throats cut and burnt on the altar, with smoke rising. God will have his sacrifices, one way or another! Those who attack His people, and desecrate His holy places, if they do not repent... that is, become their own "living sacrifices"... will have to be His own sacrifices, in their own bodies, consumed by Divine fire! And one way or another, God WILL BE glorified! Cp such passages as Eze 39:17-20; Rev 19:19-21; Lev 10:1,2; Isa 63:1-6.

BILLOWS: Or "pillars" (AV), but lit "palm trees" -- suggesting smoke from a volcano (HAL) or even an atomic "mushroom cloud" (TofE 28).

Joe 2:31

THE SUN WILL BE TURNED TO DARKNESS: All other lights and powers will be eclipsed when the Sun of righteousness (cp the "teacher of righteousness" in v 23) will rise upon Israel (Mal 4:2), and the glorified saints will shine forth in the Kingdom of God (Dan 12:3; Mat 13:43).


BEFORE THE COMING OF THE GREAT AND DREADFUL DAY OF THE LORD: "Before" in the sense of "in the face of". Christ will sweep all opposition BEFORE him, as a great flood might sweep away all debris! Cp same phrase, Mal 4:5.

Joe 2:32

AND EVERYONE WHO CALLS ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED: Cit Act 2:21 (Peter at Pentecost in Jerusalem), and Rom 10:11-14 (more generally, by Paul, involving Gentiles as well as Jews in the universal extension of the gospel).

WHO CALLS ON THE NAME OF THE LORD: Elsewhere, this may mean also "who calls HIMSELF by the Name of the LORD" (cp LXX; Acts 2:21; Acts 22:16; Jam 2:7; Rev 14:1).

ON MOUNT ZION AND IN JERUSALEM THERE WILL BE DELIVERANCE: Suggests the Sennacherib/Judah invasion -- wherein only the city of Jerusalem itself was safe from the Assyrian marauders.

(LD) Suggests an Arab-Assyrian coalition invading Israel in the Last Days (see Lesson, Arab-Israeli war; Lesson, Assyria in prophecy).

DELIVERANCE... AMONG THE SURVIVORS WHOM THE LORD CALLS: "For 'deliverance' LXX has 'them that are saved' -- fully saved (with an emphatic prefix in the Greek verb). And, even more impressively LXX continues: 'and the preachers of the gospel whom the Lord shall call (to Himself)' " (WJoel).

AS THE LORD HAS SAID: "There is also a significant phrase in the middle of this verse, which very easily goes overlooked: 'as the Lord hath said'. The implication is that the very idea expressed in this verse has already been made familiar to Joel either by an earlier revelation of which nothing is known, or -- much more likely -- through his acquaintance with some earlier prophecy; almost certainly the latter, in which case there is a choice between Oba 1:17 and Isa 37:32, both of which were roughly contemporary with Joel. It is another example of the prophets being glad to have reinforcement of their message from the writings of other inspired Scripture" (WJoel).

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