The Agora
Bible Commentary

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Psalm 68

Psa 68:1

SUPERSCRIPTION: "OF DAVID. A PSALM. A SONG". The early part of the psalm (vv 1-18?), a sustained reminiscence of Israel's wilderness journey; poss in part a psalm of Moses, surviving from those early days. The concluding vv (vv 26-35) seem to ref Hezekiah: and, less certainly, so also do vv 20-23 (cp the concluding vv of Psa 69). Yet vv 24,25 are most appropriate to the occasion of David's bringing of the ark to Zion (Psa 24; 30; 2Sa 6; 1Ch 15). Prob David saw his bringing of the Ark to Zion as the culminating processional of the long pilgrimage of the Ark, the token of God's presence in Israel, all the way from Sinai to Jerusalem. The protracted journey is at last concluded -- or, more precisely, will be concluded with the fulfillment of this typical history when the Glory of the Lord in Christ re-enters the Holy City (Eze 43:2,3; Zec 14:4; Act 1:10,11).

MESSIANIC: Allusions, in the early part of the psalm, to Israel in the wilderness have often been read as foreshadowing a "march of the saints" from Sinai into the Holy Land. This is a mistake. To be faithful to the prototype, that march in the LD would have to begin in Egypt. The New Israel belongs to Jerusalem. It is natural Israel that has its beginnings in Egypt and Sinai: cp the allegory in Gal 4:22-31. However, several LD passages speak of a renewed bondage for Jews in Egypt (Isa 19:18-20; 11:11-16; Deu 28:68; Joe 3:19). Nevertheless, there is also much of value here with ref to the New Israel in their present life, as a wilderness journey to a Land of Promise. This is a very familiar idea, frequently used in the NT (eg Rev 7:9-17; 1Co 10:1-11). And Paul's exposition of v 18 in Eph 4:8-10 is along these lines.

V 1: Quoting Num 10:35, which was "when the ark set forward" in the wilderness, moving on from one encampment to the next.

MAY GOD ARISE: (NT) "Arise" has to do with resurrection; sw "cumi" in "Talitha cumi" (Mar 5:41). "Destroy (unloose, take down) this tabernacle, and in three days (cp Num 10:33,34!) I will raise it up" (Joh 2:19).

Psa 68:2

BEFORE THE FIRE: Prob the idea is "before the fire of God", suggesting the pillar of cloud and fire in the wilderness.

Psa 68:4

EXTOL HIM WHO RIDES ON THE CLOUDS: Allusion to Exo 24:10. But a much better reading is: 'in the deserts' (RSV mg, NIV mg: the Heb is "arabah"; cp Eur 2:550). The word "arabah" is translated "desert" 9 times, "plain" 42 times, and "wilderness" 5 times. Nowhere else is it translated "heavens". The KJV translators may have been influenced (or confused!) by v 33, where a completely different word (shamayim) is rightly rendered "heavens".

EXTOL HIM: May be "cast up a highway"... for Him (RSV mg) -- cp Isa 40:3,4; 49:11; 57:14: 62:10.

HIS NAME IS THE LORD: JAH (or YAH) is the shortened form of the Covenant Name. Its first occurrence is Exo 15:2.

Psa 68:5

Vv 5,6: Vivid memories of Egyptian oppression, and Egyptian deliverance.

FATHERLESS... WIDOWS: (NT) See Joh 14:18, where "comfortless" is lit "orphans". Also cp with the parable of the importunate widow (Luk 18:3,7,8,15,16). See also Jam 1:26,27.

Psa 68:6

GOD SETS THE LONELY IN FAMILIES: Lit, "in a house (Heb beth)". There are no lonely ones in this well-knit community of family groups encamped beneath the standards of the houses of their fathers. (NT) Heb "beth" = house. In general, those who have left families for the Truth's sake will receive "an hundredfold" even now, and greater things yet in the age to come (Mar 10:29,30). More specifically, Christ is the "solitary" one -- Heb yachid, which describes an only child! Translated "darling" in Psa 22:20; 35:17, and used of Isaac (typ Christ) in Gen 22:2,12,16. So Christ, the only-begotten Son (Psa 2:7) -- who dies childless (Isa 53:8) -- would yet live to "see his seed" (Isa 53:10; Psa 22:30): a spiritual family or house (Heb beth) of believers (Heb 3:6; 1Pe 2:5; Eph 2:19).

HE LEADS FORTH THE PRISONERS WITH SINGING: (NT) Ref resurrection, ie Isa 49:9; Zec 9:11,12?

BUT THE REBELLIOUS LIVE IN A SUN-SCORCHED LAND: The unworthy generation of Israelites which perished in the wilderness.

(NT) Heb 3:16 is a clear allusion to this: "Who were they who heard and rebelled? (sw LXX 'rebellious'): Were they not all those Moses led out of Egypt?" And the LXX for this v ("dwell in tombs") -- though not the Heb text -- is echoed in Mar 5:3: Legion dwelling in the tombs. This demoniac is a remarkable figure of "provocative"/ "rebellious" Israel in LD: miraculously healed, "clothed", and -- its mind renewed -- brought into fellowship with Christ.

Psa 68:7

A clear picture of the Ark of God leading the Israelite march through the desert (Exo 13:21).

See Lesson, Selah.

Psa 68:8

The outstanding theophany: Exo 19:18. In general, earthquakes accompany awesome manifestations of God: Eze 38:20; Zec 14:4; Joe 3:16; Amo 9:1,5; Jer 4:24; Psa 77:18; 114:7; Isa 2:10-22; Rev 6:12; 11:19; 16:18.

(NT) A clear implication that the Law was to be superseded. Also, note that the march of Israel required that they leave Sinai, which typ the Law. In a different figure, Isa 51:6 has the same idea -- as does Heb 8:13.

Psa 68:9

ABUNDANT SHOWERS: May mean manna from heaven (one of the "gifts for men" of v 18). Or it may mean simply a lit refreshing downpour (cp Jdg 5:4: "The heavens also dropped" of v 8 may be "poured down rain" -- as RSV mg).

Psa 68:10

Should be: "Thy living ones (the Cherubim of the Ark) have dwelt in it" (ie among the people of Israel, God's inheritance: v 9).

FROM YOUR BOUNTY, O GOD, YOU PROVIDED FOR THE POOR: "All God's gifts are prepared gifts laid up in store for wants foreseen. He anticipates our needs; and out of the fulness which He has treasured up in Christ Jesus, He provides of His goodness for the poor. You may trust Him for all the necessities that can occur, for He has infallibly foreknown every one of them. He can say of us in all conditions, 'I knew that thou wouldst be this and that.' A man goes a journey across the desert, and when he has made a day's advance, and pitched his tent, he discovers that he wants many comforts and necessaries which he has not brought in his baggage. 'Ah!' says he, 'I did not foresee this: if I had this journey to go again, I should bring these things with me, so necessary to my comfort.' But God has marked with prescient eye all the requirements of His poor wandering children, and when those needs occur, supplies are ready. It is goodness which He has prepared for the poor in heart, goodness and goodness only. 'My grace is sufficient for thee.' [2Co 12:9] 'As thy days, so shall thy strength be' [Deu 33:25]" (CHS).

Psa 68:11

Vv 11-18: A poetic description of the early victories in the wilderness.

THE LORD ANNOUNCED THE WORD: As in other instances of directing the Israelites in battle (Num 31:1,2; Jos 10:8).

GREAT WAS THE COMPANY OF THOSE WHO PROCLAIMED IT: The one word equivalent to "those that proclaimed it" is feminine: it describes the women who celebrate the victory, as in Exo 15:20,21; 1Sa 18:6; Jdg 4.

Psa 68:13

AMONG THE CAMPFIRES: Or "the pots" (AV). The RV has: "among the sheepfolds". JT: "prostrate among the cattle pens" (Eur 1:180). Prob // to the sarcastic ref to the inept Reuben in Jdg 5:16, who would not or could not come forward to help his brethren in their sore trial. Reuben had been faithful in the early fight for the Land (Jos 22:1-6); they then had much silver and gold (Jos 22:7,8). But, in later days, apparently corrupted by prosperity, this tribe did not help.

V 13 is a real problem passage (note all the italics in the AV!). Various guesses have been made: (a) Israel enjoying plunder and prosperity. (b) The enemy in flight. (c) A manifestation of the Shekinah Glory. (d) Trophies seized from the enemy. (e) Women displaying their finery.

But whichever it is (and the first seems most likely, because of the prob // to Jdg 5:16), why should the figure of silver and gold be used? Suggestion: The phrase about lying among the sheepfolds recalls the desire of the tribes of Reuben and Gad to settle with their flocks and herds east of Jordan. This was granted -- provided they first played their part in the campaign to conquer Canaan. That achieved, they were free to make their way in peace (with the wings of a dove?) back to Trans-Jordan. And they went loaded with a handsome share of the plunder of the campaign -- hence the silver and gold.

THE WINGS OF MY DOVE ARE SHEATHED WITH SILVER, ITS FEATHERS WITH SHINING GOLD: "A bird found in Damascus, whose feathers, all except the wings, are literally as yellow as gold; they are very small, and kept in cages. I have often had them in my house, but their note was so very sad that I could not endure it" (LB 271). Or: "The rock dove because the metallic luster on its neck would gleam like gold in sunshine, and the soft grayish-white feathers beneath the wings as he would see the bird above him in flight would appear silver-like" (Stratton-Porter).

Psa 68:14

THE ALMIGHTY: El Shaddai (as in Psa 91:1) -- a divine title which, in its context, often suggests fruitfulness and prosperity (Gen 17:1; 28:3,4; 35:11-13; 43:14; 48:3,4; 49:25; Num 24:4,7; Rth 1:20,21). Used extensively in Job, where the idea of the wrath and judgment of the Lord is prominent -- and in such fashion it is used here (cp also Isa 13:6; Joe 1:15). The derivation of Shaddai has been disputed: (1) a word meaning "to be powerful"; (2) the word for "breasts" -- implying of course fertility; or (3) a verb meaning "to destroy". All these have some Biblical basis.

SNOW: Snow water (which sym God's righteousness and mercy and blessings) "crystallized", so as to be seen and admired!

ZALMON: Salmon -- poss Zalmonah (Num 33:41)? -- could have been the site of a great battle fought against the Arabs of that territory. The "snow" may suggest the whiteness of stripped carcasses, or bleached bones, or even perhaps the white robes of the fallen Bedouin soldiers. The slaughter of these kings and chieftains was so great that the appearance of the battlefield, strewn with their dead bodies, was like a snow-covered landscape.

Psa 68:15

'The mountain of Bashan (ie Hermon) is a great mountain, a mountain of summits is the mount of Bashan.' Bashan, a territory east of Jordan, generally appears in Scripture as indicative of that which is mighty and rich, and which exalts itself against the things of God (Isa 2:11-14; Eze 27:3-7; 39:18; Mic 7:14; Nah 1:4; Zec 11:2; Amo 4:1).

"With this boldly formed mass of rock so gloomily majestic, giving the impression of antiquity and invincibility, when compared with the ranges on the other side of unstable porous limestone and softer formations, more particularly with Zion, it [ie the black volcanic mass of Bashan] is an emblem of the world and its powers standing over against the people of God as a threatening and seemingly invincible colossus" (KD).

Psa 68:16

Nevertheless, in God's eyes the mighty peaks of Hermon or Bashan cannot begin to cp with "the mountain which God hath desired to dwell in" (AV). The Almighty declares His intention to dwell in Zion for ever. This selection of Zion was evidently intimated to David at the time of the great promise of 2Sa 7 (see also Psa 132:11-14). It is rather surprising that the history does not include this detail, but abundant other refs and allusions (both before and after David's time) to Zion support this premise.

WHY GAZE IN ENVY?: "Leap" (AV) is wrong; should be: "Why look ye askance -- why do ye envy (RSV) -- Oh ye high mountains?" A poetic way of expressing the fears of the surrounding nations when Israel came into the Land and, much more, when David became king in Jerusalem (2Sa 8). God has often chosen "little things" (David himself, for example: 1Sa 16:11; 18:18) to confound the mighty (1Co 1:28)!

WHERE THE LORD HIMSELF WILL DWELL FOREVER: Therefore this part of the psalm cannot poss apply (as has been attempted) to Sinai (cp "Jerusalem" in v 29; "Salem" in Psa 76:2,4). Note the marked ct in Heb 12:18-29 between Sinai and Zion.

Psa 68:17

Lit: "The chariot of God is... thousands of angels", with ref to the Cherubim Chariot of the Lord in Eze 1; Zec 6; 2Ki 6:17; etc. But why "twenty" thousands? The word "ribbothayim" may be rendered "twice ten thousand" (RSV). Since "ten thousand" is often used to sym a large undefined number (Psa 3:6n; 1Co 4:15; 14:19; 1Sa 29:5), then "twice" such a number is undoubtedly intended to convey a number of almost unimaginable magnitude.

Again, like the RSV: The Lord came FROM Sinai INTO the holy place (ie Jerusalem). This is a description of happenings in Zion, not (as some mistakenly suppose) in Sinai!

(NT) The cherubim-chariot of the Lord, who comes with a multitude of angels: Mat 16:27; 24:30,31; 25:31; Mar 8:38; 1Th 4:16; 2Th 1:9,10.

Judgment at Sinai?: The context is altogether concerning Zion! It was most likely written to memorialize David's bringing of the ark to Zion at last. This was the culmination of an important phase in the Divine purpose which began with Israel's deliverance from Egypt, proceeded to the giving of the Law at Sinai, and languished for several generations while the ark rested uneasily at a number of temporary locations. Now it was at last coming to its foreordained dwelling place. With this background we now consider vv 15-17: The "hill of God" is Zion (v 15), "the hill which God desires to dwell in... for ever" (v 16). These three vv contain two comparisons: (a) Zion is now (in David's eye, and -- prophetically -- in the kingdom age) like the hills of Bashan (v 15), meaning majestic and towering and invincible. This is another way of saying that, when God dwells in Zion and His king (David or Christ) reigns there, Zion will be "lifted up", first to rival and then to surpass the "mountains" (ie kingdoms) of the Gentiles (Isa 2:2; Psa 48:2). (b) Secondly, God is among the angels and the chariots (cherubim) there in Zion, like he was previously in Sinai (v 17). Zion is now (David's day, and again of course with prophetic implications) like Sinai was -- the scene of God's glorious fiery manifestation. With this understanding, v 17 may now be read, with no real modification: "Yahweh is among them (the cherubim and angels), as (He had been) in Sinai, (but now) in the holy place [mount Zion!]." That this is the proper reading is borne out by such vv as v 24 (where "sanctuary" would be Zion) and v 29 (temple at Jerusalem), and -- for that matter -- the whole of the psalm. So, if Psa 68:17 proves anything in the matter of the location of the judgment seat, it proves that Zion and not Sinai will be the site! (Further, see Lesson, Judgment seat at Jerusalem.)

Psa 68:18

This v looks back to an important development in Israel's experience in the wilderness: Moses led captivity captive, ie, the captives of Egypt were now become God's captives, on whom He "inflicts" His gifts instead of hard bondage. The same idiom occurs (according to AG) in Deut 21:10-13 ("has taken them captive" = "has led captivity captive") -- where the women captives of vanquished people are delivered into a much more pleasant "captivity"!

YOU RECEIVED GIFTS FROM MEN: The gifts of Holy Spirit wisdom which were distributed to Moses' seventy helpers: Num 11:24,25 -- where "the Lord came down" in the person of the Angel of the Covenant (Exo 23:20-25). "Coming down" is a well-recognized Bible idiom for a theophany (Gen 11:5; 18:21; Exo 3:7,8; 19:11,18,20; 34:5; Psa 19:8; Isa 64:1), and "you ascended on high" indicates the end of the theophany.

GIFTS FROM MEN: The gifts for men, both received and given (Heb "laqach" is ambiguous) may also ref to the Levites -- a gift from God to Israel, and a gift to God from Israel (Num 17:6; 8:9-10; cp 3:5-10).

EVEN FROM THE REBELLIOUS: Also prob alludes to the unconventional Eldad and Medad, who did not join the others before the sanctuary, but stayed in the midst of the common people, and prophesied there. On this, Moses' level-headed comment was: "I wish that all the Lord's people were prophets" (Num 11:29). David doubtless saw the aptness of all this to the occasion when, having brought the Ark to Zion, he was able to organize a full service of praise to God through the "prophesying" of Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and the rest (1Ch 25). Hence the insertion of this v at this point.

THAT YOU, O LORD GOD, MIGHT DWELL THERE: "Dwell" = Heb "shaken", from whence is derived the "Shekinah" Glory.

(NT) Jesus, who ascended on high after his resurrection, will in due time receive gifts for men (lit, 'for the man': ie the one perfect man, his ecclesia: Eph 4:13); and then he will come in blessing to lead his captivity captive (ie save his Israel for a more benign form of bondage), that the Lord God (in the person of His Son) might dwell among them. But, as Paul pointedly argues, the ascension implies that first there be a "descent" into the lower parts -- ie, the depths of the earth, or the grave. The first triumph must be preceded by a sharing and fellowship with human weakness -- leading, inevitably, to his death.

Psa 68:19

Vv 19,20: The blessings of Christ's kingdom -- esp the last phrase: The "issues (escape, or goings forth: sw vv 6,7) from death" (v 20) ref, of course, to the resurrection to everlasting life!

V 19: (NT) God as the bearer of His people (Isa 46:1-4; 63:9). Specifically, Christ as the burden-bearer of our "sins" (Isa 53:4-6, 8,10-12; 1Pe 2:22-25; Mat 8:17).

See Lesson, Selah.

Psa 68:20

ESCAPE FROM DEATH: The "exodus", or departure, from Egypt, the Land of Death (see Psa 49, eg)!

Psa 68:21

THE HAIRY CROWNS: Identification of the individual referred to is decidedly difficult, and depends a good deal on the dating of this half of the psalm. Is this a Nazarite not truly devoted? The following have been suggested:
a. Korah: Num 16:1.
b. Uzzah: 2Sa 6:6,7.
c. Absalom: 2Sa 14:15,16; 15:7,8; 18:9.
d. Rabshakeh, a renegade Jew: Psa 66:7, notes.

(NT) Here is the other side of the coin: judgment for those who have persisted in willful trespass, and hard discipline for those who (as in Psa 2) are unwilling to accept divine authority. See also v 23. Wounding the head (Heb rosh) of his enemies is, obviously, the fulfillment of Gen 3:15 (see also Num 24:17, RSV; 1Sa 17). The hairy scalp recalls the heathen practice of leaving the locks unshorn as a vow: soldiers would not cut their hair until they returned victorious from battle.

Psa 68:22

Ref to the time of David is difficult. But bringing up out of the sea easily recalls the times of Moses and Joshua (Psa 66:6; Isa 63:11 -- cp Heb 13:20). And in Hezekiah's day there was a massive captivity who were almost immed returned to their homeland: Isa 27:13; 35:8,10. Isa 11:11,12,16 had a fulfillment at that time.

(NT) This foreshadows a re-occupying of the Land by Israel, as in Joshua's day (cp Mic 7:15, RV; Eze 20:33-44), when the authority of Jesus/Joshua is asserted.

Psa 68:23

THAT YOU MAY PLUNGE YOUR FEET IN THE BLOOD OF YOUR FOES: Another allusion in Isa 63 -- vv 3,4. Similar graphic figures for exercising dominion in Psa 58:10; 110:5; Isa 63:3,4; Rev 19:13.

WHILE THE TONGUES OF YOUR DOGS HAVE THEIR SHARE: Dog = keleb; cp the military exploits of the Gentile "dog" Caleb himself (Jos 14:6-15). Also, this phrase suggests the fate of Ahab and Jezebel (1Ki 21:19; 22:38; 2Ki 9:26). Consider Eur 3:22, on the fate of the Apocalyptic "Jezebel".

Psa 68:24

Vv 24,25: David's bringing the Ark in procession to Zion. Yet something appropriate to these words must have happened also in Hezekiah's reformation after the cleansing of the temple.

(NT) It was several hundred years after Joshua that David eventually brought the Ark of God in triumph to the mountain He had chosen (v 16). Fulfillment under Jesus will hardly take so long!

Psa 68:25

THE MAIDENS PLAYING TAMBOURINES: Celebrating a triumph over the enemy (eg Exo 15:20,21; 1Sa 18:6).

MAIDENS: The "damsels" (almah) are the "virgins" esp dedicated to the service of the Lord in the tabernacle: cp Jephthah's daughter in Jdg 11:37; Hannah in Luk 2:36; the spiritual "virgins" in Rev 14:4. Note also Exo 38:8; 1Sa 2:22; Lam 1:4.

Psa 68:26

IN THE ASSEMBLY OF ISRAEL: The NIV assumes an emendation here. But the KJV's "from the fountain of Israel" is poss an allusion to the life-saving water brought into Jerusalem via Hezekiah's conduit (cp Psa 46:4n).

Psa 68:27

In this impressive processional v, why the mention of these four tribes specifically, and omission of all the rest?

LITTLE... BENJAMIN... JUDAH: The boundary between these two tribes went right through the middle of Jerusalem (Jos 15:8,63; Deu 33:12).

LITTLE BENJAMIN: (NT) Is this Paul (Phil 3:5)? His name means "the little one". "Benjamin, the least of them (1Co 15:9!) in the lead" (RSV).

ZEBULUN... NAPHTALI: Prominent in the response to Hezekiah's appeal to keep Passover at Jerusalem. (This is the primary ref of Isa 9:1.)

(NT) Most of the apostles came from Galilee (Isa 9:1; Mat 4:15,16).

Psa 68:28

"Thy God hath commanded" His angels (v 17; Psa 133:3n; Lev 25:21).

SHOW US YOUR STRENGTH, O GOD, AS YOU HAVE DONE BEFORE: The periods of both David (2Sa 8) and Hezekiah (2Ch 32) were times of exceptional divine deliverances for Israel.

Psa 68:29

Vv 29-32: (NT) In the Kingdom, the great ingathering of the Gentiles: cp Psa 72:10; 45:12; Isa 60:6,7; 45:14. The Temple, and the King, established at Jerusalem: Isa 2:2-4; 24:23; 56:7; Joe 3:17; Zec 8:3; 14:16. The initial fulfillment of "Ethiopia shall... stretch out her hands unto God" is, of course, Act 8:26-39, and what -- we may assume -- was the immediate and thorough preaching to his countrymen once the eunuch reached home!

BECAUSE OF YOUR TEMPLE AT JERUSALEM: Phrases like this seem to be esp appropriate to Hezekiah's day: 2Ch 32:23. And so also v 30.

KINGS WILL BRING YOU GIFTS: An indirect way of saying "pay tribute" (1Ki 4:21; 2Ki 17:4; Psa 72:10; etc).

Psa 68:30

THE BEAST AMONG THE REEDS: That is, the crocodile of Egypt (the land of reeds: Isa 19:6; 36:6), and the bull of Assyrian temple reliefs. Both such "wild beasts" were (and would be) rebuked by the Lord!

THE CALVES OF THE NATIONS: With hardly an exception this common word "am" ref to the tribes of Israel. So the calves are Jeroboam's false "cherubim" which he introduced to wean the people away from loyalty to the temple at Jerusalem (1Ki 12:26-33; 2Ch 13:8).

HUMBLED, MAY IT BRING BARS OF SILVER: These are the tokens of a people who acknowledge themselves to be redeemed by God and glad to be numbered in His family (Exo 30:12,13).

Psa 68:31

ENVOYS WILL COME FROM EGYPT; CUSH...: This did not happen in the time of Moses or of David. But in Hezekiah's days, yes! (2Ch 32:23; Isa 18:7; 19:23-25; 11:16; Psa 87:4 -- a Hezekiah psalm).

The stretching out of hands unto God implies prayer: Psa 28:2; 44:20; 88:9; 134:2; 141:2; 143:6; 1Ki 8:22.

Psa 68:32

See Lesson, Selah.

Psa 68:33

The great theophany at Sinai. Hence a "mighty voice": Exo 24:10; 19:19; see also Psa 29:1,3; 77:18.

Psa 68:34

MAJESTY: "Excellency" (AV). "Gaavah" sig "rising" or "lightning". The LXX word (megaloprepous) appears in the NT only in 2Pe 1:17 -- describing the brightness of the Transfiguration.

Psa 68:35

YOU ARE AWESOME, O GOD, IN YOUR SANCTUARY: This ("holy places" in AV) is an intensive plural ref to the very presence of God, in the one supreme holy place.

SUBSCRIPTION: "FOR THE DIRECTOR OF MUSIC. TO THE TUNE OF 'LILIES' ": "Shoshannim" (AV) means Lilies, and has been traditionally associated in Israel with the Passover (see Psa 44). Certainly the psalm begins with allusions to the first Passover deliverance. But the Hezekiah deliverance from Assyrian invasion also took place at Passover (Psa 44n). It is, furthermore, entirely poss that the 2nd Coming of the Lord will also occur at Passover. So there is no lack of relevance of this significant subtitle.

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