4. The Wheat and the Tares (Matthew 13)
This parable has caused much controversy among Christadelphian
expositors. Some rather strange and disconnected interpretations have been put
forth because the expositor “looked ahead” and sought to avoid an
inevitable but unwelcome conclusion. Let us look carefully at each section of
the parable, not fearing any conclusion simply because it may be unfavorable to
an old viewpoint. Brother Thomas has well said, in his “Rules for Bible
“Never be afraid of results to which you may be driven by your
investigations, as this will inevitably bias your mind and disqualify you to
arrive at ultimate truth.”
This parable goes one step beyond the previous parable (that
of the sower ), yet it follows on in the natural life-cycle of the seed: sowing,
sprouting, growing to maturity, and finally harvest. In this parable the
“seed” has become more than simply the word of God, as it was in the
previous parable (Matt. 13:19). The “seed” now symbolizes the
individuals subsequently begotten by the sown word (v. 38) — again, one
step further along in their personal development.
“The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed
good seed in his field” (v. 24). “The field is the world”
(Greek kosmos: an arrangement or order) (v. 38): here is the
preaching of the gospel message first by Christ and then, by extension, by his
disciples and later brethren, in obedience to his command of Mark 16:15,16 and
Matthew 28:19 — a command which is still obligatory today. The
“seed” takes root and produces fruit from place to place, known as
“children of the kingdom” (v. 38). (This “sowing” has
been continuous from Christ’s day to ours; there is no arbitrary
“boundary line” at A.D. 70 after which the “sowing” was
The men who sleep (v. 25) must refer to Christ’s
followers and “fellow-laborers” (1 Cor. 3:5-9), the parabolic
“workers in the vineyard” (Matt. 20:1-16). The “sleep”
represents the sluggishness and carelessness of the appointed ecclesial watchmen
in every age (Eph. 5:14; Rom. 13:11; 1 Thes. 5:6) which allows the enemy to do
his diabolical work.
The enemy who sows “tares” among the wheat is the
“devil” (v. 39), the lusts of the flesh (Heb. 2:14) embodied in
individuals and organizations who sow evil and false thoughts secretly in
the midst of the ecclesias in every age. Again compare Paul’s loving
warning in Acts 20:30, where he foretells that after his departure men will
arise speaking “perverse” things with the effect of leading away
unsuspecting believers. (See also 2 Tim. 3:4-6 — men who “creep in
stealthily”; Jude 4 — “unawares”; 2 Pet. 2:1;
and Gal. 2:4.)
The “tare” or “darnel” is a very
troublesome weed found in Oriental wheat fields. It was thought by the ancients
to be a degenerate form of wheat (A. Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus
the Messiah, Vol. 1, p. 589). It looks exactly the same as wheat until late
in its growth cycle. Its seed is similar in size and shape, but is gray in
color; its fruit is very scarce. When present in a field with good wheat sown
broadcast, the roots of the two are intertwined. Thus the darnel can be
successfully separated from the good wheat only at the time of harvest.
Thankfully, it causes no danger during growth, but even a little will
spoil the finished product!
There is a definite and intended contrast in the Lord’s
parables between the “tares”, sown in the midst of the ecclesial
field, and the “thorns” (Matt. 13:7,22), already active in the field
of the world, in the “soil” of human nature (Gen. 3:18), before the
“good seed” is even sown.
The “tares” sown by a subtle and secret enemy
produce fruit in the “children of the devil” (v. 38). There were
many such intertwined among the faithful believers in Christ’s day (John
8:44; Matt. 3:7; 23:33). Such “children” are lip-servants,
hypocrites, “questionable brethren” — not
“questionable”, certainly, to him who knows what is in the heart of
every man (John 2:24,25), but indeed “questionable” to his brethren
who lack such infallible discernment. By the explicit teaching of Christ, his
brethren have no right nor duty to exclude these “tares” from their
Of course there are some brethren whose errors in doctrine or
conduct clearly place them beyond the boundary of traditional
Christadelphian “fellowship”, and faithful ecclesias will deal with
these brethren in accordance with Matthew 18 and related passages — always
remembering, of course, that every opportunity must be given for repentance and
reinstatement. It would seem that, in practical terms, this parable is designed
to teach us that most of our time should be spent in sowing the good seed
instead of rooting out those who may or may not be unacceptable to Christ at his
judgment. If there is ever any doubt, Christ says, as to a brother’s
“fellowship” standing, then let him grow until the harvest (v. 30),
when the infallible Reaper will decide his case.
“Let both grow together until the harvest”
(v. 30). Some would contend that this commandment refers to the apostasy
outside the ecclesia. But if this were the case then it would be a
pointless commandment, for we have no responsibility there — in the
churches of Christendom — at all. Our only freedom of choice lies in the
“ecclesial world” (James Carter, “Questions and
Answers”, The Testimony, Vol. 39, No. 463 — July 1969 —
pp. 272-274). And Christ very clearly is telling us there will arise a
questionable class within the ecclesias that cannot be discovered and extricated
without the risk of doing grievous damage to the true wheat. He is pointing out
to ecclesial laborers their inability to judge perfectly, and thus their
inability to be always certain that they are uprooting tares instead of wheat.
And furthermore he is implying that the “roots” even of the wheat
might be weakened by continual agitation.
“The harvest is the end of the world (Greek
aion: age, era, dispensation)” (v. 39). Some brethren
suggest that this means A.D. 70, and the related overthrow of Israel is the
fulfillment of this parable, but this seems to involve more than a minor
dislocation of several related references. In the first place, such an
interpretation would imply that the “sowing” or gospel proclamation
must also have ceased in A.D. 70, and this is far from the case. Furthermore,
the end of the aion means generally in the Bible the full and
final end of Gentile times, marked by the resurrection and the judgment of the
responsible. In this very same chapter (Matthew 13), in v. 49, the phrase
has that obvious meaning. In the world (aion) to come, ye shall
receive eternal life, Jesus said (Luke 18:30).
It is at this judgment that all things will be made manifest
(Mark 4:22; Luke 12:2; 1 Cor. 4:5). This is the time for the rewarding of
both classes. Then and only then will the tares be separated; for,
according to the type, they do no damage to the good grain in the field, but
even a very little will taint the finished product!
All of the other allusions in Christ’s explanation of
the parable of the wheat and the tares point just as directly to the judgment of
the saints. Consider the following references:
v. 39: “The reapers are the angels”
— Other examples of angels at the judgment:
Matt. 24:31: “He shall send his angels with a
great sound of a trumpet.”
Matt. 25:31: “All the holy angels with
Mark 8:38: “When he cometh in the glory of his Father,
with the holy angels.”
Luke 12:8,9: “Him shall the Son of Man confess before
the angels of God.”
vv. 41,42: “They shall gather the tares out
of his kingdom....there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.” Similar
Scriptures have to do with the last judgment:
Matt. 8:12: “Ye shall be cast out of the
Matt. 13:50: “And shall cast them into the furnace of
fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.”
Matt. 24:51: “Shall cut him asunder and appoint him his
portion with the hypocrites.”
Luke 13:28: Same as Matt. 8:12.
v. 42: “A furnace of fire”: This is
the “second death” (Rev. 20:14; cp. Matt. 25:41 and Mark 9:43-47).
These allusions to the second death clinch the argument that the
“tares” represent false believers, not a “Christian”
apostasy that is not even amenable to resurrectional judgment.
v. 43: “Then shall the righteous shine
forth.” This is a quotation from Daniel 12:1-3, a prophecy of the last
days, the resurrection, and the judgment. The righteous ones — the good
seed — will shine forth in the newness of Spirit life at the same time
that the wicked will be subjected to a well-deserved shame and contempt. The
analogy of the “harvest”, it must be emphasized, requires that the
tares be separated at the same time as the righteous are
“The parable of the tares cannot refer to the Romish apostasy, or
equivalent heresies, for the good seed is NOT growing together with that!
If, however, some still persist in not recognizing the plain teaching of the
parable of the tares, what of the adjacent parable of the net and the
good and bad fishes? These are not sorted out until they are brought to
land, and then, and not until then, is the division made. This cannot refer to
outside apostasy, but rather to developments inside the ecclesia, and Jesus
is warning his followers what to expect” (Ibid., p.
Other parables picture the same sequence, especially those of
the foolish and wise virgins (Matt. 25:1-12); the servants and the talents
(25:14-28); and the sheep and the goats (25:31-34).
“If, however, we had to admit that the claims of the critics are true, and
that they really are consistently more strict in their fellowship than we are,
still it does not necessarily follow that they are more faithful. We want to act
as the Lord would have us act. We want to be guided by the precept and example
of scripture. The Lord Jesus was not as strict in condemning offenders as
were some contemporary sinners. The apostle to the Gentiles revealed
extraordinary patience in dealing with faults of both doctrine and practice.
With these examples before us it must be admitted that it is possible to err
on the side of severity in the matter of withdrawing from those who are
accounted weak or faulty. Even in ecclesial life an industrious rooting out
of tares may be a mistaken zeal” (I. Collyer, “A Pure
Fellowship”, The Christadelphian, Vol. 95, No. 1128 — June
1958 — p. 259; reprinted from Vol. 68, No. 807 — Sept. 1931 —
“It is possible to err on the side of severity.”
This might be the keynote of Brother Collyer’s writings on the broad
subject of fellowship. Such an emphasis is notably anticipated in the
well-balanced comments of John Thomas on several occasions, with special
reference to the parable under consideration. I quote these as a sort of
appendix to our study of the wheat and the tares:
“Beloved brethren, human nature is always tending to extremes and
transcending what is written. As the saying is, it will strain at gnats and
swallow camels by the herd. It set up the Inquisition and is incessantly prying
into matters beyond its jurisdiction. It is very fond of playing the judge and
of executing its own decrees. It has a zeal but not according to knowledge, and
therefore its zeal is intemperate and not the zeal of wisdom or knowledge
rightly used. It professes great zeal for the purity of the Church, and
would purge out everything that offends its sensitive imagination.
This basic interpretation is followed also by Robert
“But is it not a good thing to have a church without tares, black
sheep, or spotted heifer? Yea, verily, it is an excellent thing. But then it
is a thing the Holy Spirit has never yet developed, and it cannot be
developed by any human judiciary in the administration of spiritual affairs.
There are certain things that must be left to the Lord’s own
adjudication when he comes....” (The Ambassador, 1866, pp.
91,92; reprinted under “Dr. Thomas and Divisions”, The
Christadelphian, Vol. 67, No. 788 — Feb. 1930 — pp. 52,53).
“The Mystery of Iniquity, then, had its beginning in the Apostolic State.
The seeds of it were then sown broadcast by the enemy. But they did not
ripen as soon as sown; they only began to grow. The fruit was to be the
‘Lawless one’. But fruit, when first formed, is not mature.
Considerable time passes from the first appearance of fruit to the time of
ingathering because of ripeness. So with the Lawless One, he had to appear as
the fruit of the Mystery of Iniquity; but after his appearing, he had to grow
and ripen for the vintage, when he should be ‘consumed with the spirit
of the Lord’s mouth, and destroyed with the brightness of his
coming’ ” (Eureka, Vol. 1, p. 431).
“As Paul testified 30 years before, ‘the Mystery of Iniquity’
was ‘already’ at work, and showed itself in the ‘false
apostles’ at Ephesus; the spurious Jews of the Synagogue of the Satan, at
Smyrna; the Balaamites and Nikolaitans at Pergamos; the children of Jezebel and
the Satan, at Thyatira; the twice dead, at Sardis; the but little strength, at
Philadelphia; and the wretched and pitiable, and poor, and blind, and naked, at
Laodicea. These were tares, which in 280 years from the day of Pentecost,
choked the good seed, so that a separation had to ensue.
“But while the Mystery of Iniquity was thus developing ‘after
the working of the Satan’ with all power, and signs and lying wonders....
there existed a class, who not only knew the Truth, but loved it. This
was ‘the salt’ of the first three centuries, which gave savour to
pre-Constantinian christendom. It was the redeeming and antagonizing element in
the Ephesian haters of the deeds of the Nikolaitans; in the Smyrnean rich in
“The Apostolic Christendom, then, to which John wrote, was divisible into
these two sections, which were more or less commingled in the ecclesias
generally — real and nominal christians....” (Ibid., pp.
“The reservation [about particular additional demands in fellowship] is a
reasonable one, and needless distress is being caused by the insistence of a
ruthless rule of excision. There is great danger in this course. While trying
to pull up an incipient tare or two (if they are such) they are levelling
whole rows of genuine wheat” (The Christadelphian, Vol. 35,
No. 409 — July 1898 — cover
And, finally, it is followed by H.P. Mansfield also
(“The Parable of the Tares”, The Story of the Bible, Vol. 9,
No. 4 — Sept. 1965 — pp. 65-69).